Tutorials for Reading
Old German, French and English
Handwriting, Naming Sytems

Tutorial for reading old American written records and abbreviations commonly used then.

Tutorials on reading old German hand writing

Tutorial on typing umlauts and accents - located below on this page; must use alt and numeric pad!!

Langenscheidts Handwörterbuch a standard German/English dictionary online

Another good dictionary - Another good German/English dictionary online

Tutorial on old German given names - Every kid had same first name, knowing rules helps.

Tutorial on nicknames, especially German names.

Tutorial on German godparents - Not yet installed

Date: Monday, August 25, 1997 7:31pm Electronic Mail From: joe eddleman
If you are not aware there is excellent reference material on German Research at www.geocities.com/Heartland/Plains/3816/how/2.html which has a good article on sponsorship. I hope this is the right address. If not let me know and I will try to confirm it. It had some good German stuff but no Godparents. Joe sent another and it had even more goodies, but nothing on Godparents.

Abbreviations used in old German church books - +  oo dS dT dT+ can put this on bottom this page. Data provided by Weber, John Edelmann, and Harold Eddleman

Occupations - Cyndi's list of links to old occupations, titles, and obsolete terms.

Pennsylvania Counties date of formation - location of vital records.

I may be completely wrong here, but I had always assumed Johann was used in front of another given name, while Johannes was used if the given name by which the individual is known REALLY WAS John. However, I am no expert on German given names! ----Bill Eddleman

If you enjoy browsing German websites for your German ancestors http://pegasus.adnc.com/~websites/lynnd/vuword.html has a nice list of hundreds of words and form letters in German. From this page you can link back to German Study Group and Virtual University


French Language Aids

Robert Behra's list of Alsace sites - Check these first for your Alsace roots.

French villages names often refer to local areas, rivers, geographic places. Examples: Aix-en-Provence (Aix in the Provence region), Aix-les-Bains (Aix the Baths or spring waters), sur = on the __ river. Morville-sur-Nied (dept. Meurthe-et-Moselle)

"Près" means near ("bei" in German), so Eberbach-Seltz (or Eberbach bei Selz or Eberbach-près-Seltz) is the Eberbach near Seltz, to distinguish it from Eberbach-Woerth (Eberbach bei Wörth or Eberbach-près-Woerth), a town which was merged with Gundershoffen 28 Aug 1973. Seltz is Seltz (Selz in German) and there is only one of them. In 1990 it had 2,584 people, compared with only 311 for Eberbach-Seltz which is about 5 km to the northwest. You could certainly have relatives in both places. Robert Behra

--------------------

You are correct with the meaning of "en" and "sur" ("sur" is normally followed by the name of a river, or "sur Mer" = "by the sea").

The situation of "les" is less simple. It may indeed mean "the" (plural), e.g. "Aix les Bains" ("the baths"). However, in many other instances it means "near" (usually with a grave accent on the "e", sometimes also written "lez" - It is derived from an old root which is no more used in French, only in names of towns : e.g. "Vandoeuvre les Nancy" which is a town close to Nancy).
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Here's a common sense reason for duplicate village or town names and their identifying appendages: people settling an area might reasonably but unknowingly have used a name that was actually the name of a town somewhere else. People talking about one of these towns would have to use some identifying factor to differentiate one from another - Smithtown by the mill - Smithtown in the forest - Smithtown to the south - Smithtown the spa - Smithtown near the border - Smithtown Junction - and on and on. These names hang on and become institutionalized because they are essential to convey precise meaning. As people began to travel more, it became increasingly important to know one distant town from another. One wouldn't want to undertake a long journey to Smithtown Hills, only to find one had been expected at Smithtown Crossing, after all. Of course, if the other Smithtown is so far away that you'll never want to go there - it doesn't need an identifying modifyer and can be plain Smithtown. That's the way it goes - a simple human reason for seeming confusion - actually the result of a search for certainty! Boston used to be surrounded by towns that were all Newton-something-or-other ... maybe it still is, or maybe they've been wrapped into greater Boston. That's an easy US example. Same phenomenon world-wide, probably.
-- Virginia Guertin Egan Crawford (Ginny)


Latin Aid

From: Richard_Stoltz@compuserve.com

Message text written by INTERNET:ALSACE-LORRAINE-L@rootsweb.com
Speaking of reading records in latin, does anyone know if "Lotharingia, Gallica" refer to Lorraine, France?

Yes, it does. Richard



Abreviations used in old German church records

* = born; date of birth

oo = marriage; date of marriage

+ = shaped like a cross = death, date of death

 = date buried, usually as a rectangle not a square

John Edelmann of Dayton sent a much larger list and I will put it here when I find it. His list is lost in my computer somewhere. --Harold Eddleman .... I think this is the list from John Edelmann:

Subject: German Genealogical Symbols Date: 25 Sep 97 10:23:48 -0500 From: EDDLEMAN-L@rootsweb.com To: Indbio

For future reference:

Genealogical symbols:

ASCII Typeset Meaning _____ _______ _______
*     asterisk       Born
(*) asterisk in parentheses Born illegitimately
+*     cross and asterisk    Stillborn
~,= single or multiple water waves Baptized o circle Engaged oo,& linked or touching circles Married o|o separated circles Divorced o-o separated circles Illegitimate union + cross or vertical dagger Died [],# box Buried +X cross and crossed swords Died from battle wounds X crossed swords Died in battle ++ two crosses This line extinct

This is from

http://www.genealogy.com/gene/faqs/sgg.html#20

------------

In a message dated 97-12-08 13:41:59 EST,
cindyjohnson1@ameritech.net writes:
I thought that this may be helpful toa few people:
Alt................................Old Alter..............................age Altest.............................eldest Am.................................on the Aufgebote..........................proclamation Bauer..............................farmer Beerdigung.........................burial Bemerkungen........................remarks Brautigam..........................bridegroom Braut..............................bride Bruder.............................brother Copulation.........................marriage Datum..............................date Dorf...............................village Ehe................................marriage Ehefrau............................wife Enkel..............................grandson Enkelin............................granddaughter Eheman.............................husband Eltern.............................parents Familie............................family Frau...............................madame, wife, woman Fraulein...........................miss, young lady Gatte..............................husband Gattin, Gatten.....................wife Geboren............................born Geborenen..........................formerly (maiden name) Geburt.............................birth Gestorben..........................died Getfauft...........................christened Heirat.............................marriage Im.................................in the Im alter von.......................aged Jahr...............................year Kind...............................child Kinder.............................children Kirche.............................church Kirchengemeinde....................church parish Kleinkind..........................infant Knabe..............................boy Kreis..............................county, district Land...............................state Madchen............................girl, maiden Madchenname........................maiden name Mann...............................husband Monat..............................month Mutter.............................mother Name...............................name Ort................................town, place Pfarramt...........................parish, parishoffice Pfarrer............................pastor Schein.............................certificate Schwester..........................sister Sohn...............................son Staat..............................state Stammbaum..........................genealogical tree Stadt..............................town, city Stand..............................condition, occupation Standesamt.........................registers office Starb..............................died Starb Kinderlos....................died without issue Sterb..............................death Tag................................day Tauf...............................christening Taufen.............................christen Taufpaten..........................Godparent Tochter............................daughter Tod................................death Trau...............................marriage Trauen.............................marry Vater..............................father Verbergen..........................bury Veheiratet.........................married Verstorbenen.......................deceased Vorname............................given name Witwe..............................widow Witwer.............................widower Wohnen.............................live, reside Wohnhaft...........................resident Wohnort............................dwelling place Zeuge..............................witness Zuegen.............................witnesses Zurname............................surname

SOME ABBREVIATIONS USED IN GERMAN GENEALOGY: err(errechnet).....................approximated; Harold thinks this is calculated.
geb.(geboren)......................born
get.(getauft)......................christened
gest.(gestorben)...................died
verh.(verheirated).................married
s.v.(sohn von).....................son of
u.d.(und der)......................and the
d.j.(derjunere)....................the younger
d.a.(deralte)......................the older
t.v.(tochter von)..................daughter of
wwer.(witwer)......................widower
wwe.(witwe)........................widow
Kath.(Katholisch)..................Catholic
Ev.(Evangelisch)...................Evangelical
Luth.(Lutheranisch)................Lutheran
Bez.(Bezirke)......................district
K.B.(Kirchenbuch)..................church book ; Church records
Kr.(kreis).........................county, district
---- Cindy


| INDIANA BIOLAB Home Page | PageList | Claude Eddleman Farm Home Page |
| Farms Around the World | Eddleman Directory | Indiana Biolab Farm Page |
| Speculations about Potential Eddleman Linkages |


Compiled by Harold Eddleman, Ph.D., Indiana Biolab, 14045 Huff St., Palmyra IN 47164 Corrections and comments are appreciated: Contact indbio@disknet.com

Useful Alsace stuff and other notes linked from above

Date: Monday, October 13, 1997 9:09pm Electronic Mail
From: INT:RobtBehra@aol.com
Re: Web resources for genealogical research in Alsace

1) Pascal Pinan-Lucarre's GENEALOR. A discussion list limited to Lorraine. Much of the traffic on GENEALOR is in French, but that shouldn't keep English-speakers from subscribing. To subscribe, send a message in the following form subscribe genealor [your e-mail address] to the address below genealor-request@genealogy.net
Pascal also has a webpage on Lorraine

2) Rick Heli's German Genealogy: Elsass/Alsace site, at Rick lists most of these resources on his site, along with much, much more.

3) Robert Weinland's Genealogy page, at

4) The Alsace-Lorraine Research List (ALSRL) on the FEEFHS (Federation of East European Family History Societies) site. Despite the title, this is a page for posting queries, not a list like ALSACE-LORRAINE-L or GENEALOR. The queries are answered by the webmaster, and archived periodically. This provides one way for people to list the surnames they are working on.

5) Communities of Alsace A-Z Robert Behra site giving Village, population, city Hall, ect.

6) There are occasional postings related to Alsace and Lorraine on the following newsgroups: fr.rec.genealogie [almost entirely in French] soc.genealogy.french [largely in English] soc.genealogy.german [largely in English] These newsgroups (and most others) are well indexed by dejanews, at http://www.dejanews.com These resources, together with the links found on many of them to yet other resources, ought to provide helpful information for those looking for their ancestors from Alsace or Lorraine.


How to type  umlauts & accents

From: crossley@gvn.net   John Crossley, Sacramento, California

To type letters with umlauts or accents, hold down the ALT key and type the appropriate numbers on the numeric keypad (will not work with numbers across top of keyboard).

Useful for German:  ä-132   ë-137   ö-148   ü-129   ß-225   Ä-142   Ö-153   Ü-154

Useful for French:    à-133   è-138   é-130   ç-135   â-131   ê-136    ô-147    û-150

And for the Macintosh users among us: press then ä- option-u a ë- option-u e ö- option-u o ü- option-u u ß- option-s Ä- option-u shift-A Ö- option-u shift-O Ü- option-u shift-U

and for the French à- option-` a è- option-` e é- option-e e ç- option-c â- option-i a ê- option-i e ô- option-i o û- option-i u

This is not a complete list; many others exist in MS-DOS. These work in MS-DOS, QBasic, word processors, and most other programs. There are 256 HTML tags for Icelandic harp, etc, but alt-numeric pad does not work for them. I have not found any method for inserting these HTML character entities except: View, Edit Source Document.


ubject: Re: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] Iehl, Jehl Date: 17 Dec 97 18:31:24 -0500 From: gschmitt@evansville.net To: Indbio

I would think that the dilect of which you speak would be a combination of French and German and a merging of the two languages. I have always been interested in dilects and as you probably know this goes even to the individual family level. However the writings I have been looking at vary just a little from the text books used in classes. A few letters change but still keeps in the general line. If you get into Catholic church records you will most likely be reading in Latin. I consider this easier to read and find help for than the German script. The problem I have found with the German Script is, as with others, the individual hand writing. Just be thankful that back then there weren't any ball point pens around and you had to take some time with the quills.

As for reading the German script I have found a great help in the book titled "If I Can You Can Decipher Germanic Records". By Edna M. Bentz (ISBN 0-9615420-0-4). I ordered this through a local book store for $12.50. Mainly what you get is an alphebet in German script and in several variations according to region. There are also samples of German, Latin, English and Danish words that would be found in the records such as occupations and illnesses. A total of 85 pages you can teach yourself to read and write in German script. Be aware however that sometimes time will be spent on comparison in the actual records because of the handwriting. I have found that learning is quick when vital records are involved and for the most the wording stays about the same. This is how I have come to be able to read the films. I made copies of some of the records and translated the French records with the help of a French/English dictionary. For the German records I had some knowledge of the script gained as I grew up with German relatives. The above mentioned book finished that education.

Once the writing was translated to German in English letters I could then read that. After translating the first French record I then practiced on others picking up the vocabulary for numbers, months, etc. Latin I also had in childhood and school growing up. Through these methods I have aquired enough knowledge to get the needed information out of these records. However as with the French records I could not read a French newspaper nor can I properly speak the words. It's just a visual recognition of needed sources. So as you can see my ability to read French is very limited but suits my needs. The Latin and German are now the rewards of school work and just growing up with a family in which you could understand their German better than their English. You can pick up the translation dictionaries at just about any bookstore for about $15.00, but you will have to get something like the book I mentioned above for the German script. One final thing is that some of the Latin records have given me fits trying to translate. Some of this is due to rusty memory and some to the different ways the priest wrote their Latin.

Hoping this has been of some benefit to you. Thanks for asking. If you wish further information that I may be able to share just ask.

Gilbert Schmitt

visit the Warrick and Posey Counties USGenWeb Project page... http://www.evansville.net/~gschmitt/warrick.htm http://www.evansville.net/~gschmitt/posey/pomain.htm

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From the internet:
I went to the telephone directory for Germany, and found 164 families across Germany with the name "Barthelme". This gives you that info for any Surname in Germany. The site gives you their name, address, and phone number. Hope this helps. The URL is http://www.teleinfo.de

Mr. Barthelme,

One other thing, you might check out an interesting site for the Black Forest/Baden, Germany, which neighbors Alsace-Lorraine on the east, just across the Rhein River in Germany. Many families (mine being one of them) went back and forth between the two areas, and are actually still in both areas. The URL is http://www.blackforest.vws.net and there are pretty many names listed in the various villages. I believe there might be an index now, and places to post queries. Hope this helps. Blessed Christmas!

John Louis Maurath


Johann und Hans Date: 24 Sep 97 07:59:08 -0500 From: EDDLEMAN-L@rootsweb.com To: Indbio

snip

Harold writes:

> as an example, here is one family (should I spell out Joh.?) >Joh. Bartolomaeus E. mit Magdalena Best married 1709 Nov 4 > Their childern: >Joh.Jacob >Joh.Peter >Anna Elisabeth >Anna Catharina >Anna Margaretha >Joh. Philipp >Joh. Michael--he lived 69 years and had 8 kids; only one lived over a >day >Johannes ...(however this child only lived one day and prob not named >---he remarried >Margaretha Elisabeth died day of birth >Elisabeth Margaretha >Joh. Henrich >Anna Catharina >Ottilia >Margaretha Elisabeth > >Twice the word Zwillinge appears in left margin; what does this mean?

Zwillinge means TWIN.... You would expect to see two with this designation.

In case anyone is amazed at the infant mortality rate, keep in mind that it was a real accomplishment to keep a child alive. I have a line of Seidel's from Oberschopfheim who had maybe 12-13 childrenf, only 2 of which survived, and then they left the country. Re-use of names was common. Female children were generally given distinct names, where as male offspring were typically given a Christian first name, which was NOT used in practice. And, for a given family, that name was generally the same (as in the above) with Johann.

Harold, for "JOH." (the abbreviation) assume that means JOHANN. When JOHANNES is specified use that in full. According to my wife, BOTH names existed simultaneously throughout history, which would imply that they are, in fact, DIFFERENT names. More like the difference between JOHN and JONATHON (though not quite).

Also, I'm surprised at the "C" in Catharina, rather than a "K". Also, "Jacob" would normally have been "Jakob."

>Usually Weber used Joh., but It appears he has Johann Peter Edelmann and >Johannes Edelmann; most of the Johannes E. lived only one day or less, >but one reached age 17. It appears Johann is used a saint name and >Johannes is used if there is no given name.

>>>>> >(Johannes is a legal name, >but Johann is a church prename which might not be used in legal or every >day use.

Correct. > >John. > >


Date: 25 Sep 97 10:00:16 -0500 From: EDDLEMAN-L@rootsweb.com To: Indbio

> >online. Purpose of this letter is to ask John to give me his best >translation of some items so I can see how close I come. So John can you > >We'll try! My wife is also at work, but was able to help: > > > + means died > oo means marriage > * means born > K.B. means Kirchen Buecher Church books (church records) > >This is correct. Also, watch out for what looks more like a German CROSS ... >that means Gefaellen, or died in war. This is different from the usual >gestorben (died) sign. There is also a baptism symbol. > > > (Isie oo II mit 1732 mit Johannes Schaeffer [prob (I is typing error >looks like an overstriken; does it mean her second marriage to Johannes >Schaeffer?] > >I'd agree with that. > > Die Sippe Edelmann im Raum Beerfelden und Rothenberg im Odw. > >Edelmann clan of Raum Beerfelden and Rothenberg im Odenwald. (two towns). > > Die Sippe Edelmann in Finkenbach > >Edelmann clan of Finkenbach > > Ubersicht > - Synopsis > Zeichenerklarung >- Guide to Symbols / Characters > X Kinder vorhanden >- children still living > X der Betreffende is nach Nord-America Ausgewandert >- subject individuals emmigrated to North America. > O der Betreffende ist vermutlich n.N. -Amerika ausgewandert > - subject individuals probably emmigrated to North America > Hauptast > - main branch (family tree) > Ast > - branch > Bemerkungen Zur nachstehenden Stammfolge > - comment/notes follow the family line > > Der Heiratsantrag hat den Vermerk, dass das Ehepaar die Absicht hat >nach Pennsylvanien auszuwandern. Der Name Joh. Peter Edelmann findet >sich aber nicht auf einer der Schiffslisten von 1752.

- The church marriage record has the note that the couple intended to emmirgrate to Pennsylvania. However, the name Johann Peter Edelmann was not found in the ship registers of 1752. > > Versuch einer Rekonstruktion - attempt a reconstruction > Besitzer der Eberts-Hube - holder/possessors of Eberts-Hube > lebt 1550 - lived in 1550 > Beruf: Walkner (tuchmacher) - occupation: weaver [literal towel maker] > Bruder von Ia lebt 1575 - brother of [reference in tree?] lived in 1575 > genannt 1575 als Besitzer d.Eberts-Hube: [nothing followed the :] - named in 1575 as the holder of Eberts-Hube > T.d.Sebastian Krieg [i think he means daughter of the late Seb. Krieg] ? probably not. Ute doesn't think these abrev. mean Tochter >des... > verzieht nach Airlenbach [Airlenbach is a neighboring village] - moved to Airlenbach (old usage) > > oo (Eheberedung - actually eheschliessung) 8.10.1661 mit Margreta >Schaeffer, (*1637;A.21.5.1694, 57 J. alt, - married Oct 8 1661.... born 1637, died May 21, 1694, 57 yr. old. >We.d.Hans Sch. zu A. Kinder s. (A.) VI a-g ? widow is in german: witwer >[some of this probably means born 1637; died in Airlenbach 1694 May 12 >at age 57, widow of Hans Schaeffer of Airlenbach; Childern see >Airlenbach VIa to VIg ?? > > genannt 1690 als letzter Besitzer der Olfners-Hube - named in 1690 as the last owner of Olfners-Hube > > Gerichtsverwandter u. Gemeinsmann zu Finkenbach - court official and townsman of Finkenbach > > genannt in "Ergacher Schatzung v. 1557 (s."Mitteilungen) d. Hess. >Familiengesch.Vereinigung (H.F.V) Bd IV, 59 [probably means in part >Hessiche Family History V.?? vol IV, page 59] -named Ergacher Schatzung of 1557 in the Hess Family Historical Society >... > Gemeindezaehlung in F.v. 18.4.1678 -census in Family Historical Society ... > gen. im "Amtsprotokoll von 1661" (Eheberedungen) >- named city recorder in 1661 Centschoeffe zu Gammelsbach >- schoeffe is a judge in town of Gammelsbach > > Schwager v. Hans Peter ist Adam Schaefer - brother in law of Hans Peter is > wahrscheinlich ausgewandert 1754 nahc Nord-Amerika [prob means nach] >- probrably emmigrated in 1754 to North Amerika > + Lancaster 22.9,1781 (angeblich * 1729); hinterliess 4 Kinder; >darunter eines + 9.8.1759 - died Lancaster (PA?) 22 Sept 1781 (supposedly born 1729) had 4 children(possibly surviving), one child died Aug 9, 1759. were these records actually together....? If so, why would the death record for >this person list the death of one of his/her children 22 years earlier? > Der Vermerk " + Hainbrunn" findet sich im K.B. von Beerfelden The note "died Hainbrunn" was found in the church records of Beerfelden. > > By the way, here is a link of some interesting resources that might be useful to some on this list:

http://server.mediasoft.net/ScottC/GER.htm

All: I will be updating my web page soon. Harold, I will be intouch directly to arrange for appropriate links etc from your site. Also, I found maps to include in my pages to help you locate Stangenroth.

>John.


7 01:27:06 -0500 From: indbio@disknet.com To: Indbio

EDDLEMAN-L@rootsweb.com wrote: > > Harold and cousins, > > I may be completely wrong here, but I had always assumed Johann was used in > front of another given name, while Johannes was used if the given name by > which the individual is known REALLY WAS John. However, I am no expert on > German given names! > > ----Bill
I just came accross a note that said much as Bill did, that one child would be named Johannes and the others would be given Johann as a Saints name. The purpose was to confuse the devil if he came for a child. -- Harold Eddleman


Subject: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] Alsace Emigration book? Date: 30 Dec 97 22:08:12 -0500 From: RobtBehra@aol.com To: Indbio

The Alsace Emigration Book, by Cornelia Schrader-Muggenthaler, is a two-volume compilation of approximately 22,000 names of people known or believed to have left Alsace for the US. Although there are some late-18th-century and late-19th-century emigrants listed most of the names are those of people who left in the period between about 1830 and 1870. The author used a wide variety of sources, and the information available varies from source to source. This book does not begin to be a comprehensive list of people who left Alsace, and does not include information for emigrants from Lorraine, a separate region.

The Alsace Emigration Book is still in print and can be ordered from the publisher, Closson Press, in Apollo, PA, or from bookstores (http://www.amazon.com has it). It is also available in over 125 libraries in the US.

One volume of Germans to America has more names than both volumes of The Alsace Emigration Book put together. There are now 58 volumes of Germans to America published, taking it through 1890. Jim Eggert maintains a list of the volumes published at

http://www.genealogy.com/gene/www/emig/GermansToAmerica.html

A principal difference in the information provided is that The Alsace Emigration Book almost always gives the name of the town from which a person came. The other difference, of course, is one of focus. The Alsace Emigration Book is exclusively for those who left Alsace, while the Germans to America series lists anyone who travelled on a ship 80% of whose passengers had German names. For a detailed review by Michael P. Palmer of the methodology and completeness of Germans to America go to

http://www.genealogy.com/gene/www/emig/gta-revu.html

The bottom line is that neither of these sources is comprehensive.

Robert Behra

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Alsace: Rick Heli's German Genealogy: Elsass/Alsace For your answers? http://www.genealogy.com/gene/reg/ELS-LOT/alsace.html


Date: 1 Jan 98 00:14:46 -0500 From: bobwes@concentric.net To: Indbio

These are months from the French Republican Calendar. You can convert to Gregorian Calendar at: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/pchapelin/calend.htm and http://www.genealogy.org/~scottlee/calconvert.cgi -- Regards, Bob Wespiser


http://www.eskimo.com/~lisanne/frenchrep.htm -- I think this gives the info below HLE

French Republican Calendar

Following the Revolution, France adopted a reformed calendar called the French Republican or Revolutionary calendar, to replace the Gregorian calendar. It consisted of ten day weeks (decades) and twelve months of thirty days. Five or six feast days remained at the end of each year and these were dedicated to vacations and celebrations. The calendar was calculated from 22 September 1792, the day the Republic was first proclaimed.

Revolutionary France was eager to overthrow the oppression of church and king and adopted descriptive calendar names reflecting reason, science and nature. The calendar was devoid of the religious and mythological connotations of the Gregorian calendar.

The months were called Vendémiaire (vintage), Brumaire (mist), Frimaire (frost), Nivôse (snow), Pluviôse (rain), Ventôse (wind), Germinal (sprouting time), Floréal (blossom), Prairial (meadow), Messidor (harvest), Thermidor (heat), and Fructidor (fruit). The "complementary" or feast days were named in honor of Virtue, Genius, Labor, Opinion and Rewards. During leap year the additional day was called Revolution.

The Republican calendar was in use from 1793 through 1805 in France and areas under French rule including Belgium, Luxembourg and parts of Germany, the Netherlands, and Italy . The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was annexed to France as the département des Forêts, or "Forest Department" in 1795. France (and Luxembourg) returned to the Gregorian calendar on January 1, 1806, under Napoléon Bonaparte.

Additional Information

Calendar Conversions Scott Lee has a great tool for converting French Republican dates into their Gregorian counterparts. This is one of my favorite web gadgets!

French Republican Calendar From Philippe Chapelin's "Genealogy and History in France" web site. This page is in French, but the conversion tables are easy to figure out.

Republican Calendar Page Information in English, from Denis Beauregard's "Genealogy in France" site.

The Perpetual Calendar Page From Toke Nørby, this page was written for postal historians but contains information about several calendars.

Last Update: 19 August 1997 Lisa Oberg lisanne@u.washington.edu www.eskimo.com/~lisanne

http://www.cam.org/~beaur/gen/calrep-e.html This is the best site of all for French Rev Calendar


Subject: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] Re: French/German names Date: 5 Jan 98 22:52:30 -0500 From: RobtBehra@aol.com To: Indbio

In a message dated 1/2/98 4:26:18 PM, gschmitt@evansville.net wrote: <<Next is about the names altogether. I have noticed in the LDS films that the peoples signed mostly in German using their German veriation of the name while the records gave the French variation. For example, in the record the name is given as Jean and it's signed as Johann. Also at times the name was signed in two different scripts and even the recorder signed in German. Was this something to do with the laws or have to do with ethnic Germans living in France. There is the additional problem here in which what identity to use in my genealogy records. I usually use the name used by the person in America and make a note of the other variations while including copies of those records. How do you all handle this? >> Gilbert, This ends up being an almost arbitrary decision for the genealogist. I have noticed that most French genealogists use French forms of the given names, German genealogists use German forms and Americans sometimes use English forms, sometimes French and sometimes German. I don't believe there is a good rule which covers all the possible circumstances. However, I do believe that more attention should be paid to the available contemporary sources. For example, in my database I enter a person with the forename used in the official records documenting that person's life. This means that in most instances for a person who lived prior to the advent of civil records in 1793 the form of name will be that used by the local clergyman. In my case that means Latin, the language used by the Catholic Church for records. So I have lots of people named Joannes, Antonius, Franciscus, Henricus, Francisca, Othilia, Anastasia, etc. When civil records began, at least in my area, the records were kept for about a dozen years in the local Germanic language, and I end up with Antony, Heinerig, Johannes, Frantz Joseph, Mathiss, etc. And then the language of the records switches to French, and there are Jean, Antoine, Henri, Aloise, this period, however, there is still the odd Abolinari (= Apollinaire). What has to be remembered is that these official records of a person's life did not strive, at least in the Church records or those kept by French-speaking civil authorities, to record what the people actually called themselves. This is why you find someone being called André in a record signing that same record Andreass, or Jean Baptiste signing Johan Babtista. The official records themselves often used arbitrarily standardized forms of given names. But in many instances these official records are all we have and I for one think that these forms should be used rather than blindly standardized further to make them accord with the language being used by the people doing research. Of course this brings up the many cases in which you have conflicting sources with different forms of name. Say a Franciscus Josephus (from his baptism record) is called Frantz Joseph when he marries, François Joseph on the birth of his first several children, signs himself Josebh, and when he dies in the US is called Frank J. In my database he would be entered as Franciscus Josephus, with all the data on the permutations in a note. Others would make different decisions. If examples of the person's signature can be found in records then this form of name should certainly be recorded, and perhaps even given precedence over the forms found in official records if they are different. But even then people weren't always consistent over time in the forms they themselves used. Which is why I started out by saying it ends up being almost an arbitrary decision for a genealogist. But better an informed one than an uninformed one. Robert Behra

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List


Subject: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] "Atlantic Bridge to Germany" Date: 5 Jan 98 20:11:16 -0500 From: pegpowel@netins.net To: Indbio

FYI (For your information)

Consists of eight indexed volumes of reference help on searching Germanic ancestry during the period of Germany's largest reign. The ones I looked at showed grid maps and named villages.

Vol 1. Baden-Wuerttemberg Vol 2. Hessen, Rhineland-Pfalz Vol 3, Bavaria Vol 4, Saarland, Alsace-Lorraine, and Switzerland Vol 5, Bremen, Hamburg, and Schleswig-Holstein Vol 6, Mecklenburg Genealogical Handbook Vol 7, Nordrhein-Westphalen, Northrhine-Westfalia Vol 8, Prussia, Brandenburg, East Prussia, West Prussia, Pommerania, and Posen

Hope this might help someone who is searching these areas.

Peggy

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Lower Alsace (Haut-Rhin): CDHF http://www.telmat-net.fr/~cdhf Cover only the southern portion of Alsace


Subject: Web resources for genealogical research in Alsace Date: 13 Oct 97 21:09:36 -0500 From: RobtBehra@aol.com To: Indbio

Most of the readers of this list are probably familiar with most of the resources below, but I mention them in the interest of helping those few who aren't. And perhaps someone else on the list knows of yet other valuable resources.

1) Pascal Pinan-Lucarre's GENEALOR list. Similar to this list, but with coverage limited to Lorraine. Much of the traffic on GENEALOR is in French, but that shouldn't keep English-speakers from subscribing. To subscribe, send a message in the following form

subscribe genealor [your e-mail address]

to the address below

genealor-request@genealogy.net

Pascal also has a webpage on Lorraine, at

http://www.world-address.com/genealor/

2) Rick Heli's German Genealogy: Elsass/Alsace site, at

http://www.genealogy.com/gene/reg/ELS-LOT/alsace.html

Rick lists most of these resources on his site, along with much, much more.

3) Robert Weinland's Genealogy page, at

http://wwwperso.hol.fr/~rweinlan/

4) The Alsace-Lorraine Research List (ALSRL) on the FEEFHS (Federation of East European Family History Societies) site, at

http://feefhs.org/de/als/alsrl.html

Despite the title, this is a page for posting queries, not a list like ALSACE-LORRAINE-L or GENEALOR. The queries are answered by the webmaster, and archived periodically. This provides one way for people to list the surnames they are working on.

5) My Communities of Alsace A-Z site, at

http://members.aol.com/robtbehra/AlsaceA-Z/GenInfo.htm

6) There are occasional postings related to Alsace and Lorraine on the following newsgroups:

fr.rec.genealogie [almost entirely in French] soc.genealogy.french [largely in English] soc.genealogy.german [largely in English]

These newsgroups (and most others) are well indexed by dejanews, at

http://www.dejanews.com

These resources, together with the links found on many of them to yet other resources, ought to provide helpful information for those looking for their ancestors from Alsace or Lorraine.

Happy hunting.

Robert Behra


bject: Re: Re: Beeden or Beederhof Date: 17 Oct 97 13:05:22 -0500 From: RobtBehra@aol.com To: Indbio

The instructions I remember for the GEO server are to send a message to

Arthur.Teschler@uni-giessen.de

with the subjectline

_GEO_

and the sole text of the message the name of the town you're looking for.

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Have you visited Rootsweb website? Go to: http://www.rootsweb.com


Subject: Typing accents, umlauts, etc. Date: 18 Oct 97 20:12:48 -0500 From: bert.knupp@nashville.com To: Indbio

Hmm. Appreciate the attempt, but my ISP doesn't accommodate non-ASCII character sets, apparently (and I don't use Windows, so...). Your tips on using the ALT key plus appropriate numbers resulted in an inscrutible melange: =E4-132 =EB-137 =F6-148 ... stuff like that, with little equal signs and letter/numeral combinations. I can make them appear on my own screen (here is an a-umlaut: ; here is an O-umlaut: -- how do they look?), but they don't transmit, I hear. I work with the international translation service, run through Arthur Teschler's listserver in Giessen, and the convention there is: use a", o", and u" for the umlauted letters, and a capital-B for an esszet. The volunteers can instantly convert texts typed thusly into "standard" orthography with the flick of a macro ("shortcut key" in MS parlance). Of course, if you have a gimcrack system that can change character sets, you have an advantage, but it doesn't help those who cannot copy them. Bert Knupp in Music City USA

------------------------- Hunting for KNOPP/KNUPP (PFA>PA, OH, WV, VA, MD), CALE (TN, KY, IL), STONE (IL, TN), THOMPSON (MA, NH, PA, OK), JACKSON (IL), CLEGHORN (IL, IA), TURNER (IL, IA), HAUER (PA, MD), FRIETSCHE/FRITCHIE (MD), RITCHIE (MD), WEISHAAR, BO"HM/BEHM (ALS>PA).

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Subject: Re: Phone search Date: 26 Oct 97 19:04:42 -0500 From: brucenoe@cybercable.tm.fr To: Indbio

Ellen Rae Thiel wrote: > I just tried the phone search at http://www.epita.fr:5000/11//. > I tried it for the surname THIEL in village of Forbach. It gave me several > listings. However, I wanted to see just what department/county this was so > tried THIEL in all 7 areas (54, 55, 57, 88, 67, 68, 90) and also got listings > of THIEL but none that were the same THIEL's as in Forbach. > I am confused. Why wouldn't they have come up in the department.? > Ellen Rae Thiel > Bouldrer, Montana

Ellen,

Forbach is in the department of Moselle in the region of Lorraine.

The French web directory is not very good for global searches when there are a lot of listings found. It allows you to set the maximum number of pages as an option on the search screen. There is one "page" for each locality, unless there are more than six listings for that location, in which case it will allocate multiple "pages" for that location.

When there are more than your maximum pages it gives the message "il y a plus de xx réponses" meaning "there are more than xx responses (pages)" and then at the end of the list "il y a peut-etre d'autre réponses" meaning "there are perhaps other responses". Therefore it does not give a complete listing.

Be sure to set the maximum pages to 20 for your global searches.

Bruce Noé Strasbourg, France

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Alsace: Rick Heli's German Genealogy: Elsass/Alsace For your answers? http://www.genealogy.com/gene/reg/ELS-LOT/alsace.html


Subject: Breda; old German handwriting Date: 7 Dec 97 15:16:48 -0500 From: bert.knupp@nashville.com To: Indbio

Robert ... and Joan, There also exists a town/village of Breda farther north in the Netherlands. Driving east from Groningen (NL) thru Friesland (NL) and over to Westfriesland (D) one passes a couple of autoroute exits to Breda. Families van Breda exist, too. (It's just another lead.) --------------------- Several researchers have reported difficulty deciphering the old German "Kurrent" handwriting, used almost universally in the 17th and 18th centuries and in formal records on into the modern era. It's quite ornate but inscrutible to the uninitiated. I have made up a ten-page guide to old German handwriting, with samples including a lot of terms found in old records, Kirchenbu"cher, Standesamt files, etc., that I'll be happy to provide to anyone requesting it. I've kept it large to make it easier to see the strokes, etc. Send me a request by private e-mail (bert.knupp@nashville.com) and I'll mail one off. No charge, of course, but if you're moved to reimburse the copying and postage (count the stamps when it comes) I wouldn't complain. 8-). Bert Knupp

------------------------- Hunting for KNOPP/KNUPP (PFA>PA, OH, WV, VA, MD), CALE (TN, KY, IL), STONE (IL, TN), THOMPSON (MA, NH, PA, OK), JACKSON (IL), CLEGHORN (IL, IA), TURNER (IL, IA), HAUER (PA, MD), FRIETSCHE/FRITCHIE (MD), RITCHIE (MD), WEISHAAR, BO"HM/BEHM (ALS>PA).

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<< Harold Eddleman >>

Harrold,

Back at that time, being a Godparent meant that you would see to the religious education of the child if something happened to the parents. If the child didn't have close relatives, then it also meant rearing the child with a special emphasis on his/her religious instruction. In a small community, the priest or minister would not accept Godparents who were not in good standing with the church. They had to be attending services regularly and practicing Christian virtues. For a genealogist, this means a close famiy friend. From my own genealogy, it often means an interweaving of the families. One goes to PA, soon another follows. One then goes to Ohio, soon the other goes. Son of one family marries daughter of the other family...all move to Iowa. Hope this helps. Anne Hawn Smith

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Lower Alsace (Haut-Rhin): CDHF http://www.telmat-net.fr/~cdhf Cover only the southern portion of Alsace


Subject: Re: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] Iehl, Jehl Date: 17 Dec 97 18:31:24 -0500 From: gschmitt@evansville.net To: Indbio

I would think that the dilect of which you speak would be a combination of French and German and a merging of the two languages. I have always been interested in dilects and as you probably know this goes even to the individual family level. However the writings I have been looking at vary just a little from the text books used in classes. A few letters change but still keeps in the general line. If you get into Catholic church records you will most likely be reading in Latin. I consider this easier to read and find help for than the German script. The problem I have found with the German Script is, as with others, the individual hand writing. Just be thankful that back then there weren't any ball point pens around and you had to take some time with the quills.

As for reading the German script I have found a great help in the book titled "If I Can You Can Decipher Germanic Records". By Edna M. Bentz (ISBN 0-9615420-0-4). I ordered this through a local book store for $12.50. Mainly what you get is an alphebet in German script and in several variations according to region. There are also samples of German, Latin, English and Danish words that would be found in the records such as occupations and illnesses. A total of 85 pages you can teach yourself to read and write in German script. Be aware however that sometimes time will be spent on comparison in the actual records because of the handwriting. I have found that learning is quick when vital records are involved and for the most the wording stays about the same. This is how I have come to be able to read the films. I made copies of some of the records and translated the French records with the help of a French/English dictionary. For the German records I had some knowledge of the script gained as I grew up with German relatives. The above mentioned book finished that education.

Once the writing was translated to German in English letters I could then read that. After translating the first French record I then practiced on others picking up the vocabulary for numbers, months, etc. Latin I also had in childhood and school growing up. Through these methods I have aquired enough knowledge to get the needed information out of these records. However as with the French records I could not read a French newspaper nor can I properly speak the words. It's just a visual recognition of needed sources. So as you can see my ability to read French is very limited but suits my needs. The Latin and German are now the rewards of school work and just growing up with a family in which you could understand their German better than their English. You can pick up the translation dictionaries at just about any bookstore for about $15.00, but you will have to get something like the book I mentioned above for the German script. One final thing is that some of the Latin records have given me fits trying to translate. Some of this is due to rusty memory and some to the different ways the priest wrote their Latin.

Hoping this has been of some benefit to you. Thanks for asking. If you wish further information that I may be able to share just ask.

Gilbert

visit the Warrick and Posey Counties USGenWeb Project page... http://www.evansville.net/~gschmitt/warrick.htm http://www.evansville.net/~gschmitt/posey/pomain.htm


Subject: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] German phone directory Date: 2 Jan 98 21:43:34 -0500 From: wgaddis@nh.ultranet.com To: Indbio

Hello everyone,

This is in response to someone who had requested a German phone directory.

He said he got many responses on the phone directory but they were all looking for an address when he got it.

The following has worked for me:

http://www.teleauskunft.de/

It can be accessed in German, French or English.

Also, for worldwide phone books you might try:

http://members.tripod.com/~westland/telefoon.htm

Hope this helps.

Patty

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Lorraine: Pascal Pinan-Lucarre's Lorraine "Genealor" For your answers? http://www.world-address.com/genealor/


Subject: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] Website with Lots of Bas Rhin Date: 7 Jan 98 11:11:46 -0500 From: agless@earthlink.net To: Indbio

I was running my GLESS surname through a Family Tree Maker search engine and stumbled across a website that has a lot of Alsatian people listed on it from the 1700's. Maybe the list owner belongs to this group. Please forgive me if you already knew all this.

There are 147 pages to the list with too many surnames to type in here. They start with ACKER ADLOFF ANDRES BARTHOLOME BECHTS BISCHOFF BLESS BOLENDER BONN, etc. In some instances there was just one name from somewhere in Alsace, mainly Bas Rhin, but in other cases there were whole clusters of names.

If this helps just one person, it will have been worth it. I don't have a whole lot to contribute to this group.

The link for the beginning of the list is

http://www.familytreemaker.com/users/k/e/l/Darryl-S-Keller/COL3.html

Alice Gless

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Lorraine: Pascal Pinan-Lucarre's Lorraine "Genealor" For your answers? http://www.world-address.com/genealor/


Subject: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] Service de traduction Date: 10 Jan 98 08:18:56 -0500 From: CCVR@prodigy.net To: Indbio

Bonjour Ce les messages est à passé sur des informations sur un programme de traduction par ordinateur étant fournissent par Alta Vista. C'est un exemple du programme, puisqu'il a traduit ce message, il n'est pas parfait, mais il est bon en donnant l'idée de la lettre. I le hve l'utilisant, et lui est bon pour pouvoir comprendre les messages envoyés ot le groupe en français, traduira-t-il seulement est-ce qu' ainsi beaucoup expriment à la fois, et traduira-t-il le texte ordinaire ou un page Web, voici le URL, http://babelfish.altavista.digital.com/cgi-bin/translate?

Sincères amitiés, Warren Lambing

This messages is to past on information about a computer translation program being provide by Alta Vista. This is a example of the program, since it translated this message, it is not perfect, but it is good in giving the idea of the letter. I hve been using it, and it is good to be able to understand the messages sent ot the group in french, it will only translate so many word at a time, and it will translate plain text or a web page, here is the URL, http://babelfish.altavista.digital.com/cgi-bin/translate?

Kind regards, Warren Lambing

-- Lambing Family Genealogy http://pages.prodigy.com/BYRL86A/lambing.htm

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Have you visited Rootsweb website? Go to: http://www.rootsweb.com


Subject: Finding locations (was Re: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] Zor Date: 10 Jan 98 09:12:00 -0500 From: rfox@mis.net To: Indbio

There's a computer that will find locations for you. I've only used it for Germany, but it may work elsewhere, too.

Send a message to <geo@genealogy.net>

In the body of the message (no subject) type the name of the place you want to find. I just typed in Affalterbach and it sent back the information in a few minutes.

Hope this helps someone out there!

Rita Fox <rfox@mis.net>


ubject: [ALSACE-LORRAINE-L] Patronymes Date: 16 Jan 98 13:43:44 -0500 From: procher@cpr.fr To: Indbio

Bonjour ou bonsoir (selon le pays ;-) Nous avons mis a jour la liste de nos patronymes, de nouveaux noms, de nouvelles dates y apparaissent, passez-y voir ! Rappel de l'adresse : http://www.mygale.org/03/nomadeuh/ Vous pouvez laisser vos commentaires via un GuestBook ...

==== ALSACE-LORRAINE Mailing List ==== Alsace: Rick Heli's German Genealogy: Elsass/Alsace For your answers? http://www.genealogy.com/gene/reg/ELS-LOT/alsace.html


Re: Foreign-language symbols (cwsexton@ONR.COM, 04/05/99 19:31) To: Indbio

Whooaaah, Tim.

Despite your good suggestions for how to type certain foreign symbols....it does NOT work if the software on the other end does not interpret the characters correctly. Irrespective of what you think you are typing, the important aspect in email is how all the varied operating platforms and email software on the OTHER end are interpreting your stuff.

This recent post of yours has gibberish (actually, just a literal transcript of the key strokes that you hit) for all of your Spanish language symbols. Nothing Spanish about it.

I don't know if, when sending this back to you (with your original text appended below), you're system re-interprets your keystroke sequences once again with your intended Spanish language substitutes, but it *may* show them as the raw plain text that came through on my end.

Here's a (strong) suggestion: Just anglicize the names in plain text, sigh, and be grateful that we can all read it, even though it may be grammatically (and politically) incorrect! In email, until we all live in a one-system one-software world (God forbid), *simpler is better* in every respect. (I offer the same suggestion to those of you who may have tried to compose email in a word processor with lots of bells and whistles or within a web browser and post it to TexBirds somehow.)

I'll be interested if in fact your system shows the results of your keyboard work below as you intended or as the plain text gibberish that my (Mac/Eudora) system shows! Let me know.

Best,

Chuck

>TEXBIRDERS, Suspecting that at least a few others on TEXBIRDS might be in my >situation, I'm passing on a suggestion made by Jos=E9 Hern=E1ndez for= > producing >some common symbols in a foreign language (Spanish in this case). I was >having trouble correctly spelling names of some towns in the Lower Rio >Grande Valley, because of symbols not readily available on my keyboard, such >as =F1. In order to show this, one must press the <Num Lock> key and then= > use >the keypad (on the right side of the keyboard) while simultaneously pressing >the <Alt> key. Here are some examples: > >=E9 <alt>130=20 >=E1 <alt>160=20 >=F3 <alt>162=20 >=ED <alt>161=20 >=F1 <alt>164=20 >=BF <alt>168=20 > >The numbers above the letters on the keyboard do not work, at least for me, >to produce the above symbols. But using the number pad I can now type words >like Chape=F1o and Saline=F1o correctly, when describing where birds were= > along >the lower Rio Grande. >Thanks to Jos=E9 and others for their suggestions. > >Hope this is useful to others, >Tim Brush >Edinburg, TX > > >-- >To leave TEXBIRDS, send a message (from the address you used >to subscribe) to <LISTSERV@LIST.AUDUBON.ORG> and in the body of your >message, put SIGNOFF TEXBIRDS

-- To leave TEXBIRDS, send a message (from the address you used to subscribe) to <LISTSERV@LIST.AUDUBON.ORG> and in the body of your message, put SIGNOFF TEXBIRDS


Before you dig into the language-specific aspects of good global web design you should take stock of the worldliness of your site a whole. If you have forms is there enough space for foreign addresses and codes? Many online forms set a 5 digit limit for zip codes which instantly prevents people in most other countries from being able to enter accurate information. If you're collecting personal information of a particularly detailed nature you should definitely be aware that European data privacy laws are far more strict than those in the US. http://nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/cyberlaw/09law.html Recent European Union directives governing the protection of personal data may hamper international commerce between the United States and European nations if the US government or business community fails to guarantee the security and privacy of its citizens' personal data. To meet international standards you might need to rethink what types of information you request and collect from your visitors and how that information is stored and shared.

Assuming you've set your sites on the global village you're going to have to speak in a language they understand. Any language begins with a set of characters. English and Latin have a character set comprised of 26 simple letters with no accents or other unique characters and technology being english- language-centric saw to it that the original 7-bit character encoding scheme accommodated only the native basics in the now familiar ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). In the 80s the 8-bit character encoding scheme was introduced to allow for alphabets with additional letters like Greek and Cyrillic as well as to introduce the world's favorite accented characters such as the &#232; the &#241; and the &#252; Quite a number of 8-bit schemes cropped up for everything from the romance languages through Hebrew and Arabic. Later 16-bit encoding schemes were hatched to allow for as many as 65,536 individual characters which make it possible to create web sites in ideographical languages like Japanese and Chinese.

All of this is great so long as your browser knows which character encoding scheme you're using. Which is precisely where the "charset" attribute comes in via the jack-of-all-tags, the META tag. For instance, to tell a browser to display the incoming data using the Japanese "euc-jp" character set the META tag would look like the following:

<META http-equiv="Content-Type" Content="text/html; charset=euc- jp">

Keep in mind of course that your visitors must have browsers that support whatever character encoding you specify. You can get a feel for this by checking out your own browser's preferences to get an idea what sets are available.

A similar but entirely different way to convey language-specific information to a browser is via the LANG attribute. The LANG attribute can be used in tandem with almost any main HTML container tag such as <HTML> <BODY>, <P> and even <B> or <I>. The language tag doesn't govern the display of text (and nor does it do any translation for you!). What it is used for is enable search engines and speech synthesizers to handle the information more adeptly. Again in the META tag the LANG attribute can be used in conjunction with keyword specification which can improve your international search results. You could, for example, have different keywords specified in separate META tags for different languages:

<META name="keywords" lang="en" content="vacations, Mexico, sunshine"> <META name="keywords" lang="es" content="vacaciones, Mexico, sol">

Lastly, one final search engine tip for increasing your international visibility is to use the LINK element. The LINK element allows you to specify the location of translated documents. How this works is that a search engine indexing your site will be able to present search results tailored to specific language requirements. You might have your home page (call it "home.html") written in English but you could have a translation in Spanish (perhaps "home-spanish.html"). By placing a LINK tag in the HEAD of your primary home page results listing sites for a spanish speaking web searcher would point that visitor directly toward the spanish page. That LINK tag specifying the Spanish-language alternate ("home-spanish.html") to your "home.html" would have the form of:

<LINK rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="home-spanish.html" hreflang="es" lang="fr" title="Mi Pgina">

That pretty much wraps up this language course. You've got the right HTML but I'm afraid you're on your own now that it comes to picking up a few of the more conversational languages. Buena suerte, amigos mios.

By Heidi Pollock, heidi.pollock@netscape.net

For further reading:

On Character Encoding: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/charset.html#encodings

On The W3C's International Activities http://www.w3.org/International/Activity.html

On the European Union Data Protection Directive http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/10/cyber/cyberlaw/09law.html#1

About The Language Code Specification http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1766.html

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:

Heidi Pollock (heidipollock@netscape.net) is a frequent contributor to Web Site Journal and can also be found dispensing her Web site knowledge to the masses on HotWired and iVillage. In her spare time she likes to conjure up images of baklava and wreak havoc on her netizen friends.

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TIPS & TRICKS_________________________________________________ _______________________________ BUILDING INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC

Now that you have designed your site with multiple languages it is important that it can be found globally. The best way to draw in visitors from other countries is to ensure your site is listed with International search engines and directories. Just to name a few, Yahoo!, Excite, and AltaVista offer multiple versions of their search services based in different languages. Don't forget to register with these International search engines to ensure your site can be found by the audience you are targeting.